Sunday, February 7, 2016

Putting Things Together

The purpose of this blog has been to place a primary document [The Act of Union 1536 - 1541] that most genealogist may not have the opportunity to read for themselves.  Reading and understanding these primary documents are basic to the steps that many genealogist must take to get around some of those brick walls.  To place this document in a "context" connecting both the JONES surname and Welsh genealogy is the goal of two new blogs titled:  JONES SURNAME CENTRAL and WELSH GENEALOGY CENTRAL.  They are intended to provide a place to communicate on these topics and discover factors that relate the two topics.  After 50 some years of this tree climbing stuff (genealogy), it has become clear that to understand "Jones Genealogy" you will have to understand "Welsh Genealogy".  So here we go...two new blogs at:  [Jones Surname Central]  and  [Welsh Surname Central] ...a place to discovery the connections.

Thursday, December 3, 2015

Additional Notes

A book by Michael Reed titled: The Making of Britain , The Age of Exuberance 1550 - 1700 , contains a number of thoughts that seem important to place in this discussion.  On pages 19 - 21, he discusses the Act of Union and a number of factors not previously presented.  He states that the Act of Union took some time for the details to be applied.  He notes that the first Welsh Justices of the Peace appear in 1541, and it was not until March of 1543 a complete list of Justices for all the Welsh counties appears.  From this point forward, the laws of England were place as the authority in Wales.
The 12 counties in Wales were placed into 4 sets of three, and a Justices for each group was organized.  The work of these Justices were under the supervision of the Court of Great Sessions.  A Council of The Marches was held in Ludow and had a superior jurisdiction.  This authority extended to Shropshire, Herefordshire, Worcestershire, and Gloucestershire.

The cover to my copy is shown.  It was first published 1986 by Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.

Friday, January 16, 2015

Of Welsh Descent

For those of Welsh descent, the English surname system has its origin with the Act of Union.   Many surnames appear around, and after, this Act was put into affect.  The following figure presents the impact on the JONES surname as it appears in the "List of Early Chancery Proceedings" preserved in the Public Record Office, England.

It was after 1544 that the JONES surname starts to appear in the legal records.  By 1558, the surname peaks and begins to climb again after 1650.  Other surnames from Welsh families had the same origin.  The next figure demonstrates how different surnames came into existence.

In each case, the individuals shared a common ancestor [Thomas].  Each "son" in the Welsh naming system would become "Richard ap Thomas", "Edward ap Thomas", "John ap Thomas", and "David ap Thomas".   When the Act of Union took affect [1536 - 1542], "Peter ap Richard ap Thomas" became "Peter Richards", and "David ap Edward ap Thomas" became "David Edwards".   Any who were the "son of a John" became "JONES".   On and on it would go.  After several generations of  different surnames, the family often lost their Welsh connections.  So, a different surname took a distinctive branch along the family tree although they shared a common grandfather.  For the genealogist, this process is important in recognizing that today, those who share the same surname, may not be related at all.

Saturday, March 8, 2014

Duties and Offices (39)

The Act of Union finishes from post (38)....

"c23. Item, that all Mayors, Sheriffs, Stewards, Bailiffs, and other ministers and officers of justice of every county, lordship, town and place within the said dominion of Wales and all and singular the king's subjects of the same shall be always obedient attendant and assisting to the said President Council and Justices of Wales, and every of them, and shall obey the King's commandments and process from them or any of them directed, and all the reasonable and lawful precepts of the said President, Council, and Justices, and every of them, and also shall be obedient to all the said Justices of Peace, Sheriffs, and Escheators within the limits of their said authorities, as well for common administration and due execution of justice as in all other things appertaining to their duties and offices."

This ends the Act of Union as recorded in English Historical Documents 1485 - 1558, edited by C.H. Williams, 1967.  The following is a copy of the front sheet to this document...thanks.

Any additions or comments please post in the comment section.

Friday, March 7, 2014

Sheriffs (38)

The Act of Union 1536 continues from post (37)...

"c22. Item, that there shall be Sheriffs in every of the said shires yearly appointed by the King's Majesty; and that none of the said Sheriffs shall have their said office of sheriffwick any longer time than is used by the laws and statutes of England..."

The term "Sheriff" is thought to have its origin in the Anglo-Saxon hundred.  Manorial administration, within each hundred, was handled by a man called the "reeve".  He was chosen from and by the folks in the manor (villeinage), and held this position for one year.  Thus he become the "shires' reeve".  A full discussion of this can be found in Origins of The Common Law, by Arthur R. Hogue, pp.126-129.

Tuesday, March 4, 2014

Justices of Peace (37)

The Act of Union 1536 continues from post (36)...

"c21. Item, over and besides the said President and Council, and Justices there shall be Justices of Peace and Quorum, and also Custos Rotulorum in every of the said twelve shires.:

At the age of 14 years an individual could choose their own guardian.  This court would deal with guardianship issues that were being questioned.

Friday, February 28, 2014

Power and Authority (36)

The Act of Union continues from post (35)...

"c6. Item, that every of the said Justices of Wales shall have power and authority to enquire of all treasons, murders, felonies, riots, routs, unlawful assemblies, extortions, embraceries, maintenances, retainers, concealments, contemps, and all other offences and evil deeds, of what natures, names or qualities soever they be, done, committed or perpetrated within the limits of their commissions and authorities, against the form of the Common Law of the realm of England, or of any statutes of the same, and to hear and determine the premisses, and every of them, and generally to minister common justice to all and singular the king's subjects within the limits of their commissions and authorities, according to the laws, statutes, and customs of the realm of England, and according to this present ordinance."